Medical Writing Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes New treatments for type 2 diabetes
mew-150pxjpg

Volume 21, Issue 4 - Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

New treatments for type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a burden for society, and the incidence of the disease continues to increase. A range of therapies is available to control glycaemia in T2D patients; however, these drugs have undesired side-effects and there is a need to develop improved treatments. Extensive research in diabetes has led to a better understanding of the disease and therefore to the design of new therapies. Incretin-based therapies are of special interest because they have numerous advantages over traditional treatments, for example, they do not produce hypoglycaemia and they induce weight loss, reduce appetite, provide β-cell protection, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. There are two different incretin therapy approaches: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. In this article, the incretin-based therapies available on the market are described and compared with the traditional therapies to control diabetes. Finally, preventive steps are pointed out as an option to control diabetes, which has become a pandemic of the twenty-first century.

Download the full article

References

  1. International Diabetes Federation. Types of diabetes. Available from: http://www.idf.org/types-diabetes
  2. World Health Organization. Diabetes fact sheet. 2011; N. 312: Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US National diabetes fact sheet. 2011: Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
  4. Banting FG, Best CH, Collip JB, Campbell WR, Fletcher AA. Pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. CMAJ 1922;12(3):141–6.
  5. Simon AC, DeVries JH. The future of basal insulin supplementation. Diabetes Technol Ther 2011;13(Suppl. 1):S103–8.
  6. The Hormone Foundation. Type 2 diabetes and insulin secretagogues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97(3):37A–8A.
  7. Phielix E, Szendroedi J, Roden M. The role of metformin and thiazolidinediones in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism and its clinical impact. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2011;32(10):607–16.
  8. Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Biology of incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology 2007;132(6):2131–57.
  9. Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7–36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1993;91(1):301–7.
  10. Gallwitz B. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues for Type 2 diabetes mellitus: current and emerging agents. Drugs 2011;71(13):1675–88.
  11. Marre M, Penfornis A. GLP-1 receptor agonists today. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;93(3):317–27.
  12. Wajcberg E, Tavaria A. Exenatide: clinical aspects of the first incretin-mimetic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009;10(1):135–42.
  13. Deacon CF. Potential of liraglutide in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2009;5(1):199–211.
  14. Sivertsen J, Rosenmeier J, Holst JJ, Vilsboll T. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk. Nat Rev Cardiol 2012;9(4):209–22.
  15. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011;34(S27):S27–S33.
  16. Novo Nordisk Inc. Liraglutide US prescribing information. 2010: Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/022341s004lbl.pdf
  17. Garber AJ. Novel GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetes. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2012;21(1):45–57.
  18. Gorrell MD. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV and related enzymes in cell biology and liver disorders. Clin Sci (Lond) 2005;108(4):277–92.
  19. Jose T, Inzucchi SE. Cardiovascular effects of the DPP-4 inhibitors. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2012;9(2):109–16.
  20. Verspohl EJ. Novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Pharmacol Rev 2012;64(2):188–237.
  21. Baetta R, Corsini A. Pharmacology of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: similarities and differences. Drugs 2011;71(11):1441–67.
  22. Derosa G, Maffioli P. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: 3 years of experience. Diabetes Technol Ther 2012;14(4):350–64.
  23. Ashcroft FM, Rorsman P. Diabetes mellitus and the beta cell: the last ten years. Cell 2012;148(6):1160–71.
  24. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight fact sheet. 2012; N. 311 Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html
  25. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 2006;444(7121):840–6.
  26. Osborn O, Olefsky JM. The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease. Nat Med 2012;18(3):363–74.
  27. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6):393–403.
  28. Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC, Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia 2011;54(10):2506–14.

Search

Articles

The horror and the pity: Obesity and diabetes
Passing the torch
Message from the President
Obesity: When weight becomes unbearable
Genetics and environmental factors in obesity and diabetes: Complex problems, complex solutions
New treatments for type 2 diabetes
Is exercise physiology a real science?
What is the best quality of diabetes care? The Global Diabetes Survey needs your participation
The importance of Health Research in Horizon 2020: Diabetes as a model of a chronic disease and the need for sustainable funding
Is anyone stealing your articles? Exploding copyright myths
Paragraphing (Part 1 of 2)
Improving patient communication by writing with empathy
In the Bookstores
Journal Watch
The Webscout
Manuscript Writing
Regulatory Writing
English grammar and style
Medical Journalism
Out On Our Own

Member Login

Links

The Write Stuff Archive Contact Instructions for Authors Feature Article Template (Word) Journal Policies

Editoral Board

Editor-in-Chief:

Co-Editor:

Editorial Manager

  • Victoria White (Tampa, Florida, USA)
show all +

Associate Editors:

Section Editors:

Ad-hoc Editors:

  • Amy Whereat (SpeaktheSpeech Consulting, Asnieres sur Seine, France)

Editor Emeritus: