Infants, children, and adolescents have special needs regarding their health and care. They are not ‘little adults’. The spectrum of illnesses differs from that known in adults. Just think of teething problems like chicken pox, measles, or scarlet fever. Sure, these infections can also trouble adults, but usually have a peak in childhood. Some very rare illnesses only occur in children or start in early infancy. This especially applies to genetic diseases, so have you ever heard of Gaucher disease or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease? ADHD, the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is diagnosed with increasing frequency, which is heavily discussed and questioned. Other illnesses are rather unknown in children like osteoporosis, dementia, or heart attack. Further diseases that once presented in adults only are now on the rise in children and adolescents. Our Western life style boosts obesity and hence type 2 diabetes and arthrosis, for example, are now already affecting the young generations.