When did mankind start using statistics and for what purposes? The history of statistics includes names like Bernoulli, Laplace, Gauss, Bayes, and Pearson. I guess you will have heard of some or all of these famous people, whose theories still play an important role in our daily business. Think of Pearson’s coefficient or the Gaussian distribution. Wikipedia gives you a comprehensive overview of the development of modern statistics and its main contributors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_statistics.