Exercise physiology has not always been held with the same regard as other scientific disciplines. Despite the often held view that it is confined to the study of sport, exercise physiology has contributed to some of the most important scientific advances, particularly in understanding metabolic function. The physiological stress of exercise provides a unique model to understand the regulation of energy expenditure, gene expression, and glucose utilisation. In the future, it will also be required to better understand how physical inactivity contributes to the development of chronic diseases. Therefore, the contribution of exercise physiology to the advancement of scientific knowledge should not be underestimated.